Alexis Carrel (June 28, 1873 November 5, 1944) was a French surgeon and biologist. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1912. Born and educated in Lyon, France. He practiced in France and the United States (University of Chicago and the Rockefeller Institute). He developed new techniques in vascular sutures and was a pioneer in transplantology and thoracic surgery. He was a member of learned societies in the United States of America, Spain, Russia, Sweden, the Netherlands, Belgium, France, Vatican City, Germany, Italy and Greece and received honorary doctorates from the Universities of Belfast, Princeton, California, New York, Brown and Columbia.